While Xi, the first Chinese head of state to visit the forum, did not mention Trump by name, he addressed numerous trade and economic issues that Trump raised during his campaign.
"Just blaming economic globalisation for the world's problems is inconsistent with reality, and it will not help solve the problems", he said.
If Donald Trump has any doubts over China's commitment to the Paris climate deal, these should now be extinguished.
China's vice foreign minister Li Baodong has said Mr Xi will detail the country's views on how to "steer economic globalisation towards greater inclusiveness".
Trump campaigned on a strongly protectionist platform, pledging to protect United States firms from unfair overseas competition and threatening tariffs on goods from China and Mexico.
Despite the apparent hostility between the USA and China, Mr Xi has spoken of a smooth communication channel with Mr Trump's team, and reports suggest the Chinese president would be willing to meet members of the United States president-elect's team whilst in Davos. He and other Chinese spokespersons have set out a strong position - a warning, in fact - against Mr. Trump's threats to undertake an American trade war against the Chinese.
As one of the first Western countries to recognize and establish diplomatic relations with the People' s Republic of China, Switzerland has taken the lead in developing cooperation with China, recording a trove of "firsts" in this process, Xi said.
He compared protectionism to "locking oneself in a dark room", keeping out "light and air" as well as any potential dangers.
Sen. Scott should recuse himself on DeVos confirmation
DeVos also brought up her mother Elsa Prince, a public school teacher, as her greatest educational influence. DeVos appeared before the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions on Tuesday afternoon.
The irony, says Noah Barkin for Reuters, is that despite the popular mood the "global economy is in better shape than it's been in years". We now outsource our trade policy to third party entities.
Xi also said his country would build a new model for relations with the United States, partnership with Russian Federation and cooperation for peace, growth and reform among different civilizations.
He added that China, sharing similar views with Switzerland on many worldwide issues, wishes to work with the European nation to enhance their coordination in global affairs.
More than half a dozen senior Chinese government figures joined Xi in travelling to Davos, whereas in prior years Beijing sent fewer, lower-level officials.
"No one will emerge as a victor in a trade war", Xi said.
But he also struck a warning note about the state of the global economy.
Xi told his audience that there were three major problems with the global economy: no new growth drivers, bad global governance and growing inequality; and called on them to "relentlessly pursue" innovation and improve financial regulation to remedy these issues.
The meeting scheduled from Tuesday to Friday is expected to attract over 2 700 world leaders in the public and private sectors to discuss the global economy. Still, Ma said this was the reason America's economic growth had weakened, not China's supposed theft of jobs.